The world order is evolving, with countries such as China now provide international services, including development assistance and investment. New regional organizations, such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, promote the values and agenda of China and Russia.
Russia and China have engaged in military exercises in recent years, starting in 2005. The exercises at first took place in Russia, China and the Central Asian members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), but eventually a naval component was added. The Russian and Chinese navies held join exercises in the Black Sea, the Baltic and the Mediterranean, as well as in the Yellow Sea and the South China Sea.
China and Russia undermine U.S. hegemony through the establishment of new regional and international organizations, including the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Eurasian Economic Union.
Russia’s intervention in Syria demonstrated that Moscow would defend political clients not only in the post-Soviet region, but outside of it, as well. China’s one trillion-dollar Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) represents an infrastructure investment program in more than 70 countries is an attempt to create more-China friendly partnerships and communities in foreign affairs.
The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War started September 2015 after Syria requested aid against rebel groups. Russia stepped in with air strikes against targets in north-western Syria. Russian special operations forces and military advisors are deployed to Syria. Russia said in December 2017 its troops would be deployed to Syria permanently
In June 2017, Greece, which is a major BRI partner of China, did not sign off on an EU statement that criticized Beijing’s human rights practice.
“Greece’s position is that unproductive and in many cases, selective criticism against specific countries does not facilitate the promotion of human rights in these states, nor the development of their relation with the EU,” a Greek foreign ministry spokesperson said.
A Chinese foreign ministry spokesman Geng Shuang said: “We express appreciation to the relevant EU country for upholding the correct position…We oppose the politicization of human rights and the use of human rights issues to interfere in other countries’ domestic affairs.